Training/Coaching/Supervision

A. ​Accountability

“In past eras, accountability for results was reserved for top-level managers, who assigned specific tasks to workers and ensured compliance with standard operating procedures. Now, rather than specify how subordinates should do their jobs and monitor compliance, managers at all levels place much more emphasis on accountability for results—leaving the actual decisions about how to achieve these results to the initiative of the workers involved. Quality circles, self-organizing production teams, and performance evaluation systems based on customer satisfaction all reflect increased accountability for outcomes at all levels in the organization. This increase in accountability also is evident in government and public service agencies. Instead of compliance with preset standards of operations, appointed officials are increasingly being held accountable for measurable outputs and results” (Simons, 2005).

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B. Behavioral Skills Training - Coaching

Similar to using behavioral skills training (BST) during skill acquisition with a learner, one can use BST to teach skills to coachees the same way. The components of BST used during coaching also involve modeling, role playing, and mostly importantly feedback in order to improve the observed performance of the coachee.

C. Board Supervision

“The field of applied behavior analysis (ABA) relies on a supervision model to develop the skills required for an individual working toward becoming a Board Certified Behavior Analyst (BCBA) to deliver effective services to consumers and to provide quality training and supervision of direct-line staff. Supervisors are responsible for managing all dimensions of the supervisory experience (Behavior Analyst Certification Board [BACB], 2016, Code 5.0, p. 13). The BACB® requires that supervision of fieldwork hours be provided by qualified BCBAs (BACB, 2017a) and provides several requirements and resources to the field (e.g., training prior to supervising, an outline of what should be included in supervisor training, continuing education requirements)” (Sellers, Valentino, Landon, & Aiello, 2019).

D. Coaching

“At its broadest level, coaching is generally defined as a ‘process of equipping people with the tools, knowledge, and opportunities they need to develop themselves and become more effective’ (Peterson & Hicks, 1995: 41). The notion of coaching as a developmental activity in the management literature is not a new phenomenon. In early studies on managerial roles (Mace & Mahler, 1958; Mintzberg, 1973, 1990, 1994; Yukl, 1994), coaching was primarily viewed as a technique that managers could use to correct deficiencies in employees’ task performance. More recently, coaching also has come to be viewed as a means of facilitating learning and moving executives from excellent performance to peak performance” (Feldman & Lankau, 2005).

E. Delivery of Feedback - Coaching

“Rather than merely providing information, feedback requires certain characteristics to be effective (Balcazar, Hopkins, & Suarez, 1985-1986). For example, it has been shown that performance feedback needs to incorporate some aspect of evaluation (supportive or critical statements) to achieve maximal performance (D. A. Johnson, 2013). It also has been suggested that another characteristic for delivering effective feedback is to make it individualized whenever feasible (Daniels & Bailey, 2014). One could presumably deliver evaluative feedback on an individual basis while still remaining ignorant of the recipient’s true accomplishments (e.g., approaching all employees and blindly praising each one with a unique compliment regarding performance). However, in order for feedback to truly be tailored to the individual, it should be based on the employee’s actual performance, not presumed performance” (Johnson, Rocheleau, & Tilka, 2015).

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F. Instructional Design

“Instructional Design is the systematic development of instructional specifications using learning and instructional theory to ensure the quality of instruction. It is the entire process of analysis of learning needs and goals and the development of a delivery system to meet those needs…. An instructional designer applies this systematic methodology (rooted in instructional theories and models) to design and develop content, experiences, and other solutions to support the acquisition of new knowledge or skills. Instructional designers ought to begin by conducting a needs assessment to determine the needs of the learning event, including: what the learner should know and be able to do as a result of the training or learning solution, and what the learners already know and can do…. Instructional designers are then responsible for creating the course design and developing all instructional materials, including presentation materials, participant guides, handouts, and job aids or other materials. Instructional designers are commonly also responsible for evaluating training, including assessing what was learned and whether the learning solution led to measurable behavior change” (Instructional Design Central, 2020).

G. Measurement

“Measurement provides OBM practitioners with a means of comparing behavior and evaluating change. Because measurement systems rely on standardized, objective values to describe a behavior, measurement allows practitioners to compare behavior across different settings, individuals, groups, and over the course of time. The comparison of behavior over time is perhaps the most important feature for OBM practitioners; these comparisons allow practitioners to evaluate their interventions – in particular, when the comparisons span periods, such as when an intervention is instated or removed” (Reed, Novak, Erath, Brand, & Henley, n.d.).

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H. Organizational Behavior Management

“Organizational Behavior Management (OBM) focuses on assessing and changing the work environment to improve employee performance and workplace culture. OBM consultants and managers work in a variety of industries (e.g., health care, human services, education, government, nonprofits, manufacturing, financial services, retail) to achieve meaningful and sustainable behavior change and improved business outcomes” (Behavior Analyst Certification Board, 2019).

I. Performance Diagnostics

“Functional assessment has become the standard of care for identifying the function of problem behavior in clinical and educational environments (Hanley, Iwata, & McCord, 2003). An approach akin to functional assessment has existed in organizational settings for years. Often termed performance analysis or performance diagnostics (Austin, 2000), this approach is used to identify the variables that influence an employee's substandard job performance. These influences can include insufficient task training, insufficient consequences for task performance, and competing contingencies, among others. As with functional assessment, performance analysis is conducted in order to develop a more precise intervention that is conceptually linked to the variables responsible for the performance problem. For example, retraining would not be the optimal solution for an employee's poor performance if said performance was largely a function of poorly designed work materials, as opposed to a skill deficit (for which retraining would be functionally matched)” (Carr, Wilder, Majdalany, Mathisen, & Strain, 2013).

 

J. Pinpointing

“Pinpointing involves two activities in the following sequence: (1) describing critical results or outcomes in precise terms; and (2) identifying observable and measurable employee behaviors that reliably produce those results (Daniels & Daniels, 2006; Rodriguez, Sundberg, & Biagi, 2016). Because results are products of behavior (Daniels & Daniels, 2006), identifying critical results linked to organizational success is an essential first step in pinpointing. It would be unwise to identify and measure employee behavior that fails to produce desired organizational results” (Reed, Novak, Erath, Brand, & Henley, n.d.). 

K. Reinforcement

“The principle of reinforcement is deceptively simple. “The basic operant functional relation for reinforcement is the following: When a type of behavior (R) is followed by reinforcement (SR) there will be an increased future frequency of that type of behav-ior” (Michael, 2004, p. 30).1 However, as Michael pointed out, three qualifications must be considered regarding the conditions under which the effects of reinforcement will occur: (a) the timing between the end of a given response and the onset of the stimulus change (i.e., the presentation of the reinforcer), (b) the relation-ship between stimulus conditions present when the response was emitted, and (c) the role of motivation” (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2019). 

L. Social Validity

“Wolf recommended that the social validity of an applied behavior analysis study be assessed in three ways: the social significance of the behavior change goals, the appropriateness of the intervention, and the social importance of the results” (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2019).

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For those of you interested in Training/Coaching/Supervision we encourage you to connect with other BDA employees to share with and learn from each other on how to apply the principles of Training/Coaching/Supervision in your current role or for special BDA related projects. 

If you have questions that your peers are unable to answer, please feel free to reach out to one of our in house experts for a quick tip!

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Brett DiNovi & Associates, LLC

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