A. Assessing Staff Motivation

“While a performance deficit should not automatically be assumed to be a training issue (Mager & Pipe, 1984), some portions are. The critical point is a thorough assessment of the situation. Mager and Pipe (1984) present a detailed flow chart that should be used in assessing performance problems. Such an analysis may reveal that a problem is a skills deficit or it may reveal that a problem is really a motivational deficit. While a motivational deficit may be better addressed through other techniques such as removal of obstacles or aversive interference with performance or to apply some positive consequences for completion, a skills deficit would warrant some type of formal training program” (Cautilli & Clarke, 1999).

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“The second edition of CHAMPS helps classroom teachers design (or fine tune) a proactive and positive classroom management plan that will overtly teach students how to behave responsibly. The new 2nd edition includes tips and resources to make this definitive guide to classroom management even more user-friendly. CHAMPS strategies are easy to implement and will: (1) Reduce classroom disruptions and office referrals; (2) Improve classroom climate; (3) Increase student on-task behavior; and (4) Establish respectful and civil interactions. By following the effective, research-based practices outlined in CHAMPS, teachers develop methods for clearly communicating their expectations on every classroom activity and transition” (Sprick, 2009). 

C. Classroom Management

“Culturally responsive classroom managers recognize their biases and values. They reflect on how these influence their expectations for behavior and their interactions with students. They recognize that the ultimate goal of classroom management is not to achieve compliance or control but to provide all students with equitable opportunities for learning” (Weinstein, Tomlinson-Clarke, & Curran, 2004). “In other words, we believe that the goal of classroom management is to create an environment in which students behave appropriately, not out of fear of punishment or desire for reward, but out of a sense of personal responsibility” (Weinstein, Tomlinson-Clarke, & Curran, 2004).

D. Delivery of Difficult News

“When supervisors face a situation requiring the delivery of negative feedback to their subordinates, one common strategy is to deliver negative feedback at the same time as positive feedback in order to minimize deleterious effects upon the existing social relations while still delivering the necessary corrections (Larson, 1986). A frequent advisement for achieving this outcome is to utilize the “feedback sandwich,” in which negative feedback is immediately preceded and followed by instances of positive feedback. Some authors have disputed such advice and have argued that positive and negative feedback should be delivered with sufficient temporal separation so that these variables do not impact one another (Daniels & Bailey, 2014). The basic concern is that if positive feedback is consistently followed by negative feedback, the reinforcing properties of positive feedback are undermined by the impending punishing properties of negative feedback. Such a correlation may even eliminate all reinforcing properties of positive feedback despite the intent of the delivery agent. Instead, positive feedback may come to function as an aversive warning stimulus that establishes its own removal as reinforcing” (Choi, Johnson, Moon, & Oah, 2018).

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E. Delivery of Feedback - Consultation

“Experimenters and practitioners have begun to use technology as a means of delivering immediate feedback in applied settings (Berger & Ludwig, 2007; Dihoff et al., 2004; Epstein, Lazarus, Calvano, Matthews, Hendel, Epstein & Brosvic, 2002; Goomas & Ludwig, 2007; Terrel, 1990). Results of their studies suggest that using technology to provide frequent feedback immediately following a behavior substantially improves employees’ performance in terms of both productivity and accuracy” (Ludwig & Goomas, 2007).

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F. General Soft Skills

“Soft skills are character traits, attitudes, and behaviors—rather than technical aptitude or knowledge. Soft skills are the intangible, nontechnical, personality-specific skills that determine one’s strengths as a leader, facilitator, mediator, and negotiator. Soft skills are character traits that enhance a person’s interactions, job performance, and career prospects (Parsons, 2008). The greatest feature of soft skills is that the application of these skills is not limited to one’s profession. Soft skills are continually developed through practical application during one’s approach toward everyday life and the workplace” (Robles, 2012).

G. Meeting Presentation

“The initial step in preparing an effective presentation is to define the primary objective of the presentation. Is the purpose to inform or stimulate as in an abstract-driven scientific presentation? Is the purpose to educate, as in a CME (Continuing Medical Education) presentation? Is the purpose to introduce oneself, as in a recruiting visit? Or is the purpose to entertain? In fact, every presentation should contain an aliquot of each of these elements. The most successful presentations allow the audience to derive educational benefits while being engaged and entertained” (Balistreri, 2002).

H. Pairing/Rapport Building

“Rapport-building procedures, such as pairing one’s self with preferred stimuli, are commonly recommended in early intensive behavioral intervention (Barbera, 2007; Sundberg & Partington, 1998). The objective of pairing is to establish a positive therapeutic relationship (i.e., rapport) between therapist and client through the delivery of preferred tangible and/or edible stimuli, attention, and activities in the absence of demands” (Lugo et al., 2019).

I. Parent and Stakeholder Training

“Evidence suggests that, as is the case with typically developing peers, language and social development in children with ASD is influenced by both the amount and type of parent interactions they experience (Siller and Sigman, 2002). Accordingly, education and training programs have been developed for the parents of children with ASD to provide them with knowledge and skills to promote child development and communicative competence (Mahoney et al., 1999). The implementation of such programs has been shown to impact both parent and child behaviours (McConachie et al., 2005; Stahmer and Gist, 2001). For example, positive effects on parent behaviours including decreased parent stress (Moes, 1995) and increased positive affect (Koegel et al., 1996b) have been reported in the literature. Similarly, positive impacts on child behaviours have been documented with regard to increased communication skills (Drew et al., 2002; Stahmer and Gist, 2001), increased vocabulary (Girolametto et al., 2006; McConachie et al., 2005) and increased imitative behaviours” (Patterson, Smith,& Mirenda, 2012).

J. Public Speaking

“The only way to master the front of the room is to be at the front of the room. And the only way to learn to manage fear of the front of the room is to be afraid while there, because the goal is not to be fearless; few have trouble speaking under that condition. The goal is to learn to speak effectively while afraid” (Friman, 2014).

For those of you interested in Consultation we encourage you to connect with other BDA employees to share with and learn from each other on how to apply the principles of Consultation in your current role or for special BDA related projects. 

If you have questions that your peers are unable to answer, please feel free to reach out to one of our in house experts for a quick tip!

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